CDM: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
1. College of Defence Management is a premier tri-Service institution imparting management training to officers of the Defence Services. The College of Defence Management is entrusted with the responsibility of instilling contemporary management thoughts, concepts and practices in the senior leadership of the three Services. Its Vision and Mission statements lead to identification of clear and unambiguous objectives.
2. To be the nation`s leading centre of excellence in developing management thought to optimize the effectiveness of the armed forces for meeting the challenges to national security.
3. To develop and impart the skills of management thought that leads to effective decision making, enlightened leadership and efficient resource management in a knowledge centric environment to enhance the effectiveness of the armed forces.
4. The need to set up a college specializing in imparting scientific management training was felt sometime after the Indo-Pak war of 1965. The complexities of modern combat, the high lethality and velocity of battle, large size of the Indian Armed Forces, their deployment in far flung areas, high cost of equipment, limited resources, socio-economic changes; all necessitated military commanders to be exposed to modern management concepts and techniques to enable them to operate in an effective and optimal manner. Such skills could neither be imparted from within the existing framework of training in the armed forces nor could they be borrowed from civilian management stream. This felt need of Services gave birth to the Institute of Defence Management (IDM), at Secunderabad in Dec 1970.
5. Brigadier V Dhruva was appointed as founder Director of IDM on 05 Aug 70. The curriculum of IDM was to be conducted through four faculties viz. Management Techniques (FMT), Management Studies (FMS), Logistics Management (FLM) and Case Studies Division (FCSD). The Honourable Vice President of India, Shri GS Pathak on 08 Dec 70, did the formal inauguration of the College as part of the Military College of Electronics and Mechanical Engineering (MCEME) at Secunderabad. The first Senior Defence Management Course commenced with 45 participants on 07 Dec 70. The same month the College had its first important visitor in late Field Marshal SHFJ Manekshaw MC, then COAS.
6. CDM's affiliation with Osmania University began in 1994 with the signing of a MoU, which paved the way for collaboration and academic growth. This led to the recognition of the Long Defence Management Course (now Higher Defence Management Course), conducted by CDM, for the award of the post-graduate degree of Master of Management Studies (MMS) by Osmania University. Signing of the second MoU in March 2005 for programmes upto PhD further strengthened the affiliation with Osmania University.
7. In March 1971 the College commenced its first LDMC course with 44 students. The same year in May, to get its core programme accepted, the first JTC [Joint Training Committee] visited the College. In Sep 72, the College conducted its first Defence Management Seminar, which was for a duration of 6 days. This was conducted at the National Defence College in New Delhi. Sixteen participants attended it. In Jun 73 the College started conducting capsules at other training institutions, with the first such capsules being conducted at the Defence Services Staff College and for the Higher Command Course at Army War College. In Nov 73, the first foreign participant, Major Baharuddin BK Che Din of the Malaysian Army was nominated for Long Defence Management Course.
8. In Jan 74, the inaugural issue of the Defence Management Journal was published. Its popularity and increasing demand within the service made it a bi annual issue from its second year i.e. 1975. Based on experience gained thus far, the faculties were reorganised in May 78. The four faculties, which commenced functioning, were Faculty of Organization Behavior, Faculty of Decision Analysis, Faculty of Research and Consultancy and Faculty of Training Support. In Jun 78, Col Murad Jaffar of the Malaysian Army was nominated as the first foreign officer to attend the SDMC. The College received international acclaim when it conducted a Management Capsule by six faculty members at the Imperial Defence College, Baghdad, Iraq in May 79.
9. The ultimate recognition came in Sep 83, when the All India Management Association invited the College to become a cooperating member at par with the IIMs and ASCI. In view of the growing importance of the institution, the post of the Commandant was upgraded to the rank of Major General and equivalent in 1984. In Apr 1985 the IDM was re-designated as the College of Defence Management (CDM) and the post of the Director was changed to that of Commandant. The same year the revised establishment of the College was approved which included the additional Faculty of Research and Consultancy. In Apr 1986, the LDMC gained recognition from the All India Management Association as an Advanced Course of Instruction in Defence Management.
10. Today, the CDM is a premier educational institute of the Indian Armed Forces and is the only college in Asia that exclusively imparts defence management training to the Armed Forces. It has been acknowledged as a Centre of Excellence worldwide. Officers of the three Services, paramilitary forces, civilian officers of Ministry of Defence and officers of friendly foreign countries are selected purely on merit to undergo Defence Management Courses here. Besides, the College also provides Research and Consultancy support and undertakes projects for the three Services. The college also conducts management sessions for the public/corporate sector.
11. The foundation stone for the new complex of the CDM was laid by Gen VP Malik, PVSM, AVSM, ADC; Chief of the Army Staff on 21 Jul 1999 and inaugurated by Maj Gen KC Padha, VSM, the then Commandant on 22 April 2001. The College shifted to its new location in Jun 01. The CDM Officers Mess complex was inaugurated by Air Marshal SP Tyagi , PVSM , AVSM, VM, ADC; AOC -in-C, SWAC on 28 Jul 03. Additional married accommodation for the participants at Dhruva Enclave was inaugurated by Rear Admiral V. Balachandran AVSM NM VSM, the then Commandant on 04 Apr 05. Keeping in mind the importance of technology in furthering the national security, a sixth faculty, the Faculty of Information Systems was established on 01 Jan 04.
12. In Sep 04, the College was placed under HQ Integrated Defence Staff for administrative and financial control. As a step towards operational orientation the entire LDMC course attended a war game with the Higher Command Course at the Army War College in Oct 04. Subsequently participants of Army War College and College of Air Warfare also participated in exercises at CDM in Jan 06. A detailed history of the College was compiled and put in a time capsule in Dec 04. The LDMC was renamed as HDMC (Higher Defence Management Course) with HDMC-01 commencing in Jun 05. On 23 Mar 05, a MOU was signed between CDM representing HQ IDS and Osmania University recognizing the College as a national centre for conducting research in management studies. This would permit service officers to take up full time research work leading to the award of PhD in Management Studies by the Osmania University.
13. EXERCISE AMAN SENA. “AMAN SENA” an exercise on United Nations mandated, multinational, integrated Peace Support Operations (PSO) with India as the Coordinating Nation was conducted for the first time by the College of Defence Management under the direction of Air Vice Marshal A Saikia from 21 to 29 May 08 and aegis of Integrated Defence Staff. The aim of the exercise was to streamline and formalise joint planning and conduct of UN mandated Multinational Peace Support Operations. The requirements covered aspects of integrated UN Peace Support Operations like the UNSC resolution, Concept of Operations, Roles and Tasks of Various Components of the Mission, Factors for Deployment, Rules of Engagement, DDR Operations, CIMIC and QIP initiatives, Contingency exit plans and eight spot situations spanning challenging situations which Peacekeepers are likely to face in UNPSOs. A resounding success, the exercise was a first of its kind in which 80 officers from the Armed Forces of 14 countries including India were given an exposure to the nuances of complex UN Peace Support Operations.
14. EX RAKSHA YOJNA. Ex Raksha Yojna is a capstone strategic planning level exercise aimed at training the participants in perspective planning and evolution of force structures in the existing regional and global strategic environment. The exercise is carefully crafted to encompass all management disciplines taught at CDM. The aim of Ex Raksha Yojna is to train participants in the process of strategic planning, optimization of resources and preparation and implementation of perspective plans. The Ex is conducted for HDMC & SDMC.
15. EX KSHITIJ. Exercise Kshitij which in Sanskrit means ‘Horizon’ is conceived as an Integrated College Level Exercise involving a comprehensive National Security Management and Defence Planning Process with a view to developing practical expertise in application of management sciences and disciplines. These include concept and techniques for Net Assessment, National Security Strategy Formulation, Defence Planning, Military Capability Appraisal and Preparation of Long Term Integrated Perspective Planning (LTIPP). Ex Kshitij is a capstone exercise that marks the culmination of all learning during HDMC. The exercise was called Ex Raksha Yojana earlier and with effect from HDMC-05, it was rechristened ‘Ex Kshitij’. The exercise today seeks to enable the HDMC participants in effectively executing staff and advisory functions in an integrated manner at the national military strategic level as well as the directional level while serving in the concerned branches and directorates (Net Assessment, Intelligence, Plans including Financial Planning, Procurement/ Acquisition and Operations) of the Integrated Defence Staff and the Service HQ.
16. EX TRISHUL. Exercise TRISHUL is a tri-services, three sided, integrated exercise. It covers aspects of offensive and defensive operations at the strategic and operational level in a multi-front scenario. Ex Trishul provides the much needed operational orientation to the HDMC. Ex Trishul has its genesis in the erstwhile Ex Yudh Abhyas conducted jointly with the Higher Air Command Course at Army War College, Mhow.
17. YUDH ABHYAS TO TRISHUL. In order to give the Higher Defence Management Course an operational orientation and establish the efficacy of the use of management concepts covered at CDM in the management of war, the participants of HDMC started attending Exercise Yudh Abhyas at Army War College, Mhow from the year 2004 onwards. HDMC participants used to attend a part of the war game at AWC and thereafter apply management tools and techniques acquired at CDM to arrive at pragmatic solutions and assist decision-making during the exercise. However, over a period of time, as the HDMC strength increased progressively every year, it was felt that adequate exposure on management of war could be better provided and more enhanced participation ensured if the exercise was conducted in-house. This thought process led to the introduction of Ex Trishul in the curriculum of HDMC. The first course to undergo Ex Trishul was HDMC-06 in the year 2010-11. At the conclusion of the exercise, the participants are expected to be able to appreciate the planning process for operations at strategic and operational levels and effectively utilize and synthesize their study of Strategic Management, Financial Management, ORSA and Statistics during HDMC to take informed decisions under conditions of risk for better operational effectiveness.
18. In Apr 1991, the Commandant's trophies for the best Case Study and Dissertation were introduced. The COAS Inter Services Integration Trophy was instituted in Apr 93 by Gen SF Rodrigues, PVSM, VSM, ADC; Chief of the Army Staff with an aim to promote integration amongst the three services. In Aug 94 a MoU was signed with Osmania University where in the Participants of LDMC on successful completion of the Course would be awarded the degree of MMS [Master of Management Studies] by the University. The Silver Jubilee Seminar on the theme 'Management Challenges of the Coming Decade' was conducted on 13 Dec 95. Shri Krishna Kant Governor of Andhra Pradesh was the chief guest on the occasion. Since then, the Seminar has become an annual feature at CDM.